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Exercise Science: APA Style

This guide is intended to help you find and use library resources to complete your research for Exercise and Sports Science.

APA Style Help Resources

APA Online Tutorial

This 26-slide tutorial on the APA web site explains how to format your paper and properly cite sources in APA Style and allows you to walk through it in its entirety at your own pace, or find just the slide you need (see the Outline tab on the top right to find a task and jump to that section of the tutorial).  Click the "VIew the tutorial" link beneath the tutorial description to begin the tutorial.

APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed.  (Opens in Adobe Acrobat Reader)

This Style Guide is an update to the official APA Publication Manual, 6th ed., and it contains many more examples of how to cite electronic resources in APA style. (A print copy is also available on reserve in Hackney Library.)  Due to APA restrictions, users may print copies for their personal use only.

APA Blog

This is the official companion site to the APA style guide, The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.  It includes invaluable tips on types of citations not covered in the Manual; it also allows you to submit your own questions about citations for review by the APA staff.

Other Online APA Style Guides

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL): APA Formatting and Style Guide

Click on specific examples for in-text and reference list citations from the left sidebar.

How to Write an APA Style Reference When Information Is Missing

This link from the APA Style Blog takes you to a PDF document with a chart detailing how to formulate a document when various pieces of information are missing (for example, author's name, date, title, etc.).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI Numbers)

According to the APA

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.

. . . . The DOI is typically located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.

  • The main reason for DOI numbers is to provide a stable link to electronic articles accessible on the web.  The system is set up so that the DOI numbers will not change, and the articles and other digital documents that use them should remain accessible by using the DOI number to access them.
  • However, some articles do not have DOI numbers, especially those that were published before the 2000s, and the APA Manual gives you alternative options for articles in that situation.  They provide some clarification about when to use a DOI number and when to use a URL in a citation to an electronic journal article from a database in a flowchart from the APA blog.  Ultimately,  your instructor will make the final decision on how you cite journal articles without DOI numbers.

Example of a typical DOI number:  10.1007/s10699-014-9361-3

Formatting APA Style Running Numbers

The following link leads to a help guide created by a librarian at Troy University for appropriately formatting a paper in Microsoft Word with APA-style headers with running heads and page numbers.  Although the guide was developed for Word 2007 and 2010, it works basically the same for Word 2013, although the screen shots might look a little different.  

Following these guidelines will save you a lot of headaches, allowing you to save your correctly-formatted paper in one single file.

Quotations, Paraphrases and Summaries

Purdue OWL:  Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing  This helpful page sorts out the differences in general between quoting another's work directly, paraphrasing it, and summarizing it--regardless of the citation style you choose.

APA Style Blog:  You Can Quote Me On This  This page from the official APA Blog provides great tips on how to use quotes effectively in your own work.

APA Style Blog:  When and How to Include Page Numbers in APA Style Citations  This page, also from the official APA Blog, not only indicates how to include page numbers for direct quotes and paraphrases in your in-text citations (and even how to cite them when there are no page numbers, such as in e-books), but it also gives an overview of the differences between direct quotes and paraphrases and when to use them, including examples as well.

Online Citation Builders

The following online sites help you build a citation in a variety of formats, including APA.

(Note: Accuracy of citations created using the following online citation building tools may vary; always compare these tool-created citations with the print manuals for both the MLA and APA styles.)


  • Citation Machine
  • KnightCite Citation Creator