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How to Cite Sources in Your Research Paper: APSA / ASA

A guide on how to cite your sources and avoid plagiarism

APSA

The most recent APSA Style Manual (2006) asks writers to use the parenthetical documentation system in the Chicago Manual of Style (not the note system) for documentation in political science writing.  For a brief overview, see pages 17 and following in the APSA Manual.

ASA Works Cited

Journal Articles in ASA Style

Periodical: General

Author1 (last name first), Author2 (last name last), and Author 3. Year of publication. "Article title." Journal Title Vol#(iss#):Page#.

Journal Article with One Author

Campbell, Mary E. 2009. "Multiracial Groups and Educational Inequality: A Rainbow Or a Divide?" Social Problems 56(3):425-446.

Journal Article with Two Authors

Mouw, Ted and Arne L. Kalleberg. 2010. "Occupations and the Structure of Wage Inequality in the United States, 1980s to 2000s." American Sociological Review 75(3):402-431.

Journal Article with Three or More Authors

Moller, Stephanie, Arthur S. Alderson, and Francois Nielsen. 2009. "Changing Patterns of Income Inequality in U.S. Counties, 1970-2000." American Journal of Sociology 114(4):1037-1101.

Magazine and Newspaper Articles

Duke, Lynne. 1994. "Confronting Violence: African American Conferees Look Inward." Washington Post, January 8, pp. A1, A10.

Journal Article from an Online Resource with Page Numbers

Kramer, Lisa A. and Steph Lambert. 2001. "Sex-Linked Bias in Chances of being Promoted to Supervisor." Sociological Perspectives 44(1):111-127.

Journal Article from an Online Resource without Page Numbers

Lesser, Lawrence M. 2007. "Critical Values and Transforming Data: Teaching Statistics with Social Justice." Journal of Statistics Education 15(1). Retrieved January 25, 2011 (http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v15n1/lesser.html).

Journal Article from an Online Resource with a Digital Object Identifer (DOI)

Pearson, A. Fiona. 2010. "Real Problems, Virtual Solutions: Engaging Students Online." Teaching Sociology 38(3):207-214. doi:10.1177/0092055X10370115.


For additional examples, see pages 46-51, 78, and 101-103 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

 
 
 

Books in ASA Style

Book: General

Author1 (last name first), Author2 (last name last), and Author 3. Year of publication. Book Title. Location of publisher, State or Country: Publisher's Name.

An ",eds." is appended to an author(s) entry to indicate the name(s) of editors.

If no date of publication is available, use N.d. in place of the date.

Book with One Author/Editor

Beeghley, Leonard. 2000. The structure of social stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Book with Two Authors/Editors

Lareau, Annette and Dalton Conley, eds. 2008. Social class: how does it work? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Book with Three or More Authors/Editors

Scott, Jacqueline, and Rosemary Crompton, and Clare Lyonette, eds. 2010. Gender inequalities in the 21st century: new barriers and continuing constraints. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Feagin, Joe R. 2010. Racist America: Roots, Currentalities, and Future Reparations. New York: Taylor and Francis Routledge. Retrieved January 25, 2011 (http://www.netlibrary.com/AccessProduct.aspx?ProductId=308036).

Chapter in a Book or Encyclopedia Entry.

Zambrana, Ruth E. and Victoria-Maria MacDonald. 2009. "Staggered Inequalities in Access to
Higher Education by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity." Pp. 73-100 in Emerging Intersections: Race, Class, and Gender in Theory, Policy, and Practice, edited by B.T. Dill and R.E. Zambrana. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.


For additional examples, see pages 45-51, 77, 99-101, and 106 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

 
 
 

Websites and Audiovisual Sources in ASA Style

Website document retrieved from an institution at a known location.

American Sociological Association. 2006. "Status Committees." Washingon, D.C.: American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 10, 2010 (http://www.asanet.org/about/committees.cfm).

Website document retrieved from an institution at an unknown location.

IBM. 2008. "2008 Annual Report." Retrieved January 25, 2011 (ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/annualreport/2008/2008_ibm_annual.pdf).

DVD

American Sociological Association. 2004. Max Weber Visits America, 1904. DVD. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association.


For additional examples, see pages 79-82 in the ASA's Style Guide (2010).

These ASA examples were originally created by Jon Ritterbush, Electronic Resources Librarian at University of Nebraska Kearney.